What is Transformer? | Working of Transformer | Types and construction of Transformer in 2023 │Electronicsinfos

What is Transformer?

    A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one primary circuit to another Secondary circuit, using the principle of electromagnetic induction. during the transformation of electrical energy from one circuit to another, the frequency remains constant. the primary component of a transformer is a magnetic core and primary and secondary windings. the winding which is connected to the input power source is called the primary winding and another type of winding that is connected to the load is called the secondary winding of the transformer. the magnetic flux which is produced in a primary winding link with the secondary winding and induced an alternating EMF. The value of induced EMF depends on the Faraday law of Electromagnetic induction.

    The relationship between transformer voltage and current is following

    Emf = -N dφ/dt

    What is Transformer

    input voltage/output voltage =N1/N2 =K

    K = Turn Ratio
    Principle of Transformer - Electromagnetic Induction

    Transformer based upon electromagnetic induction so what is electromagnetic induction?

    Electromagnetic Induction

    The production of an EMF(electromotive force )across an electrical conductor in a changing of magnetic field .this law is also called the Faraday law of induction by the owner of this principle.

    A transformer consists of two coils .this coils are electrically separate but are magnetically linked. One coil of the transformer is called the primary coil and the other is called the secondary coil of the transformer. In the below figure, you can easily understand the principle of electromagnetic induction.

    Faraday’s laws of Electromagnetic Induction as

    e= -N*dφ/dt

                                               Faraday’s laws of Electromagnetic Induction

    EMF Equation Of transformer
                                              EMF Equation Of transformer

    Construction of Basic transformer

    if we talk about the construction of a basic transformer, you must need two coils having mutual inductance one is primary and the other is secondary and a laminated steel core or Iron core. The two coils are insulated from each other using Air, Oil, Or other insulating material. The device will also need some Responsive container for the assembled core and windings so they can easily align with each other, a medium with which the core.

    The transformer that is used in industries or for higher purposes, they're a core made with steel laminated assembled to provide a continuous magnetic path with a minimum of air-gap included. if we use high steel we can increase the overall efficiency of the transformer. if we laminate the core properly we reduced the eddy current losses

    Types of transformer w.r.t core
    ✔ Core-type Transformer
    ✔ Shell Type Transformer

    Core type Transformer

    Core type is a construction base transformer in which winding is positioned on two limbs of the core and there is ONLY a Single flux path & windings circumventing the core. These transformers are favourite in High voltage applications like Distribution, Power, and Auto-Transformers. The copper quantity of this type of transformer is low so less expensive.

    In this type of transformer, only one path has a core type also easily repaired as compared to the shell-type transformer.

                                     Core type transformer

    Shell type Transformer

    The shell type is a construction base transformer in which both windings of a transformer is surrounds the central limb. The side limb carries half of the flux while the central carries the whole flux .this type of transformer is also called a sandwich transformer. in the shell type of transformer Natural cooling is not good so we need to the used cooling method. the repair level of this transformer is also tough because both winding on the same limb and this type of transformer also used a high quantity of copper.
                                Shell type transformer

    Types of transformer w.r.t voltage

    ✔ Step-up Transformer
    ✔ Step-down Transformer

    Step-up Transformer

    A Step-Up Transformer is a transformer in which the primary voltage is lower than its Secondary voltage.

    In simple words, we can say the voltage level of secondary voltages is higher than its primary voltages. the current level of primary windings is higher than its secondary windings.

                                  Step up transformer
    Step down Transformer

    A Step-Down Transformer is a Non-power distribution transformer in which the secondary currents are lower than its primary voltage. A Step-down Transformer, therefore "steps down" the voltage supplied .step down transformer means the voltage level of this type of transformer on the secondary side is lower than the primary side and the current is vice versa.

                                   Step down Transformer:

    Types of transformer w.r.t Phase

    ✔Single Phase Transformer
    ✔Three-phase Transformer

    Single Phase Transformer

    A single-phase transformer is a type of transformer which operates in a single phase. The voltage level of a single Phase is up to 230v and the angle between current and voltage is 90 degrees. in a single-phase transformer, there are one primary and one secondary winding. you also read single-phase vs three-phase transformers.
                                     Single Phase Transformer:

    Three-Phase Transformer

    Three-phase transformers are a type of transformer that operates on voltages of three phases. In a three-phase transformer, there are three primary windings and three secondary windings. The Basic Principle is the same as a single-phase transformer is a mutual induction. the transformer is an important part of the transmission system. The three-phase transformer has two yokes and three limbs to support the winding structure of the transformer .in a three-phase transformer the angle between each winding is 120 degrees. three-phase transformers are used in the generation, transmission and distribution. there are different winding connection for windings which is described below.

    ✔Star-Star Connection
    ✔Star -Delta Connection
    ✔Delta -Delta Connection
    ✔Delta-star Connection

                                     Three-Phase Transformer:

    ✔ Oil-immersed self cold
    ✔combination of oil-immersed and air blast
    ✔ Oil-immersed water cold
    ✔oil-immersed forced oil cold
    ✔combination of oil-immersed self-cold and water cold
    ✔ oil-forced, air-forced cold
    ✔forced oil-water cold
    ✔forced oil self cold

    Core Material

    Soft iron 

    we used soft iron in a transformer for the purpose of the core. we use soft iron because of the high permeability (μ) of the core material. the hysteresis curve of soft iron is a small area.
    Silicon steel 

    silicon steel is used for core design in a transformer. the permeability in the order of 1500u.


    we discuss all types of transformers for design, construction, voltages etc. There are many types of losses occurred in a transformer. if you need more information about transformer losses we discuss them in another article.

    You also like "Information about losses of transformer "

    Post a Comment