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Top 7 best microcontrollers in 2024 │Components of Microcontroller|Types of Microcontrollers|Electronicsinfos

Top 7 Best Microcontrollers in 2024


Leading Manufactures of plc 2023

What is a microcontroller?

A microcontroller is an integrated circuit that contains a microprocessor along with memory and programmable input/output peripherals. A microcontroller is installed within a framework to Regulate the specific capacity of a gadget. Microcontrollers are utilized during a wide cluster of frameworks and gadgets. These gadgets are regularly used by numerous microcontrollers that cooperate inside the gadget to deal with their separate undertakings.


Components of a microcontroller

  • The processor (CPU)
  • Memory
  • I/O peripherals

The processor (CPU)

A processor is often considered the cerebrum of the gadget. It executes different guidelines that direct the microcontroller's capacity. This includes a primary number of juggling, rationale, and input/output tasks. I

Memory

A microcontroller's memory is utilized to store the information that the processor gets and uses to answer guidelines that it's been customized to do. A microcontroller has two main memory types: program memory and other information memory:

Program memory is a non-unpredictable memory, meaning it holds data over a long time without requiring an external power source. the other name is called ROM(Random Access Memory)

Information memory is expected for brief information stockpiling while the guidelines are being executed. Information memory is unpredictable, meaning the information it holds is brief and is possibly kept up assuming the gadget is associated with a power source. the other name for information memory is RAM(Random Access Memory)

I/O peripherals

The information and result gadgets are the connection point for the processor to the rest of the world. The I/o ports get data and send it to the processor. The processor gets that information from the I/o ports and then sends the directions to yield gadgets that execute to the microcontroller. the primary instrument that predicts a program to the microcontroller is an incorporated improvement climate (IDE).

Different Types Of Microcontrollers

  1. Arduino Uno R3 Microcontroller Board
  2. Arduino Pro Mini 328
  3.  ESP32 Microcontroller Board
  4.  MBED LPC1768
  5.  Raspberry Pi 4
  6.  Teensy 4.0
  7. BeagleBone Black

Arduino Uno R3 Microcontroller

The Arduino UNO R3 is a microcontroller in the group of Arduino. Arduino Uno r3 is a recent board of the Arduino Family. The main benefit of this board is if we find an error we can change the microcontroller on the board as per requirements. The programming of this board utilises an Arduino PC program. This board has gigantic help from the Arduino people group, which can make an exceptionally straightforward method for beginning working on installed gadgets and tons more applications.

Arduino Uno R3 Microcontroller

Power Supply

The power source is chosen consequently. Outer power can come either from an AC-to-DC connector or a battery. The connector is used by stopping a 2.1mm focus positive

attachment in the power jack. Leads from a battery are often embedded within the GND and Vin pin headers of the primary connector.

The board can work on an outer inventory from 6 to 20 volts. Whenever given under 7V, in any case, the 5V pin might supply under five volts and therefore the board might become unsound. On the off chance that utilizing quite 12V, the voltage controller might overheat and harm the board.

The power pins are the following

Vin

The Arduino power source (instead of 5 volts from the USB association or other controlled power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or on the other hand, if providing voltage utilizing, access it through this pin.

5V

This pin is used 5V from the controller on the board.

if we use power through the USB power connector its range is (5V), and the VIN pin of the board whose voltage range is  (7-12V).

3V3

 A 3.3-volt supply is used by the installed controller. The greatest current draw in a circuit is 50 mA.

GND

this is a Ground pin on the microcontroller used for grounding purposes.

 IO REF

This Io ref pin is a reference pin on the Arduino board that provides the voltage reference on which the microcontroller works. the suitable power source or empower voltage interpreters on the results to figure work with the 5V or 3.3V.

Memory

The ATmega328 has 32 KB of Memory. the SRAM  memory is 5kb and the EPROM memory is 1 kb.

I/O peripherals

I/O peripherals

Arduino Pro Mini 328

The main benefit of Arduino Pro Mini is its low expense, adaptability and small size. In designs, we use to least parts to hold the expense down. It's the decision for a load-up you need to leave installed in a task. There are two adaptations of the board: The primary works at 5V (like most Arduino sheets), and therefore the other works at 3.3V. The main benefit of this board is in the event we can find an error. we can change the microcontroller on the board as per needs. The programming of this board can be utilizing an Arduino PC program

Arduino Pro Mini 328

Power Supply

The Arduino Pro Mini will be often powered with an FTDI cable. the Arduino Pro mini power supply with a regulated voltage is 3.3V or 5V supply on the Vcc pin. There is a voltage regulator on the board so we can regulate voltage up to 12VDC.

The power pins are as follows:

RAW 

A raw pin is used to power up a raw voltage for the board.

VCC

 The regulated voltage of this board is a 3.3 or 5-volt supply.

GND 

this is a Ground pin.

Memory

The total memory of ATmega328P has 32 kB of flash memory. the 0.5kB is used for the bootloader. 

I/O peripherals

14 digital I/O pins on the Pro Mini board can be used as an input or output.

  • RAW
  • VCC
  • GND
  • Digital Pins 14 digital I/O pins
  • PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) pins,(6 pins) 
  •  analogue pins numbered from A0 to A7  (6 analogue pins)
  •  UART pins
  • external interrupt

ESP32 Microcontroller Board

It is manufactured by Shanghai-based Espressif Systems. it costs less than $5.
ESP32 is a series of low-cost, low-power systems on a chip microcontroller with integrated Wi-Fi and a dual-mode Bluetooth system.


ESP32 Microcontroller Board

Power Supply

The EDP32  can be powered with 3.3 V DC. The EDP32 with a regulated voltage is 3.3V or 5V supply on the Vcc pin to power up the board. There is a voltage regulator on board so it can regulate voltage values up to 12VDC.

Memory

the  ROM memory is 448 KB and has 32 KB of flash memory. the 0.5kB is used for the bootloader. It has 520 KB of SRAM .eFuse memory of this controller is 1kbit. 

I/O peripherals

The ESP32 chip comes with 48 pins 

  • 18 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) channels
  • 3 SPI interfaces
  • 3 UART interfaces
  • 2 I2C interfaces
  • 16 PWM output channels
  • 2 Digital-to-Analog Converters (DAC)
  • 2 I2S interfaces
  • 10 Capacitive sensing GPIOs

MBED LPC1768 Microcontroller Board

The mbed NXP LPC1768 is a simple to-utilize MCU advancement board. its heart is a strong 32-bit ARM Cortex-M3 processor running at 96 MHz with a  512 KB streak and 32 KB RAM, An extensive firmware library and a lot of test code assist you with making your program ready rapidly, and a free web-based IDE and C++ compiler implies that no product establishment is required. Downloading programs is all around as straightforward as utilizing a USB streak drive.

MBED LPC1768

Power Supply

Vin

the Vin voltage is +5 Volt, and the current is 100mA External Power supply to the mbed board Microcontroller.

Vb

 The battery backup of this input for Real-Time Clock is 1.8v-3.3v, and the current value is  30uA.

nR

 Active-low reset pin with identical functionality to the reset button. 

Memory

  • 96 MHz ARM with 32 KB of SRAM, 512 KB of Flash
  • Ethernet, USB OTG
  • SPI, I2C, UART, CAN
  • 100MHz high-speed operation
  • Easy to use online compile
  • Based on Windows 7/8
  • High-level C/C++ SDK
  • Supported various mbed to enable the board

I/O peripherals

  •  40-pin DIP
  • USB port
  • USB client /Host
  • 2.4G board Antenna
  • IEEE 802.15 Wireless
  • Ethernet RJ45
  • Micro SD

Raspberry Pi 4 Microcontroller Board

The Raspberry Pi 4 Model B is the most recent item in the Raspberry Pi range, flaunting a 64-digit quad centre processor running at 1.5GHz, double band 2.4GHz and 5GHz remote LAN for pi4, the  Bluetooth modal is  5.0/BLE, this board contains genuine Gigabit Ethernet. this Raspberry Pi 4 ability through a different PoE HAT.

Raspberry Pi 4

Power Supply

  • 5V DC via USB-C connector (minimum 3A*)
  • 5V DC via GPIO header (minimum 3A*)
  • this board require separate Power over Ethernet (PoE)

Memory

  • 4GB LPDDR4-3200 SDRAM

I/O peripherals

  • The Broadcom modal is BCM2711which is Quad-core Cortex-A72 (64-bit) SoC @ 1.5GHz clock cycle
  • this board contains 2.4 GHz and 5.0 GHz IEEE 802.11ac wireless modal, the Bluetooth modal is 5.0, BLE
  • Gigabit Ethernet
  • There are 2 USB 3.0 ports and 2 USB 2.0 ports.
  • There are 2 × m2 × micro-HDMI ports support-lane MIPI DSI display port
  • 2-lane MIPI CSI camera port

ESP32 Microcontroller Board

ESP32 Made by Espressif Systems, ESP32 is a low-expense, low-power framework on a chip (SoC) series with Wi-Fi and double-mode Bluetooth abilities. The ESP32 family incorporates the chips ESP32-D0WDQ6 (and ESP32-D0WD), ESP32-D2WD, ESP32-S0WD, and the framework in bundle (SiP) ESP32-PICO-D4. The LX6 chip with a clock pace of up to 240 MHz. is used in wire switches, RF balun, low-clamour gets enhancer, channels, and power the board modules. Designed for cell phones, wearable gadgets, and IoT applications.

Power Supply

  • 5V DC via USB-C connector (minimum 3A*)

Memory

  • The Rom is 448 kb For the Core function.
  • The SRAM of ESP32 is 520kb for instructions
  • The RTC FAst RAM is 8 kb For the RTC boot
  • The RTC slow RAM is 8 kb For the RTC boot
  • The Efuse of ESP32 is 1 kb for chip configuration

I/O peripherals

  • ADC (analogue to digital converter)
  • DAC ( Digital to analogue converter)
  • inter-integrated circuit
  • UART( Universal Asynchronous transmitter/Receiver)
  • CAN 2.0 (Control Area Network)
  • Integrated Inter -ic sound
  • Reduced media-independent interface
  • pulse width modulation

Teensy 4.0 Microcontroller Board

Teensy 4.0 is the fresh Teensy Microcontroller board. teensy 4.0 is the fastest and most powerful peripherals. the form factor of teensy is 1.4 by 0.7-inch. It features an ARM Cortex-M7 processor at a 600MHz clock cycle, which contains an NXP iMXRT1062 chip, Teensy 4.0 is the same size, and shape as Teensy 3.2.this retains compatibility with most of the pin functions on Teensy 3.2.

Power Supply

  • 5V DC via USB-C connector (minimum 3A*)

Memory

  • ARM Cortex-M7 at 600MHz
  • 1024K RAM (512K is tightly coupled)
  • 2048K Flash (64K reserved for recovery & EEPROM emulation)

I/O peripherals

  • 2 USB ports, both 480MBit/sec
  • 3 CAN-Bus (1 with CAN FD)
  • 2 I2S Digital Audio
  • 1 S/PDIF Digital Audio
  • 1 SDIO (4-bit) native SD
  • 3 SPI, all with 16 words FIFO
  • 3 I2C, all with 4-byte FIFO
  • 7 Serial, all with 4-byte FIFO
  • 32 general-purpose DMA channels
  • 31 PWM pins
  • 40 digital pins, all interrupt capable14 analogue pins, 2 ADCs on chip

BeagleBone Black Microcontroller Board

BeagleBone Black is a low-cost, community-supported development platform for developers and hobbyists. Boot Linux in under 10 seconds and get started on development in less than 5 minutes with just a single USB cable.

Power Supply

  • 5V DC via USB-C connector (minimum 3A*)

Memory

  • 512MB DDR3 RAM
  • 4GB 8-bit eMMC onboard flash storage
  • 3D graphics accelerator

I/O peripherals

  • Dual Arm® Cortex®-A15 microprocessor subsystem
  • 2 C66x floating-point VLIW DSPs
  • 2.5MB of on-chip L3 RAM
  • 2x dual Arm® Cortex®-M4 co-processors
  • 4x Embedded Vision Engines (EVEs)

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