# Electric Current

The electrical current is the flow of free electrons in any medium. The terminology is different according to the different effects for example In the electrical circuit, we say charge carriers or flow of electrons. if we discuss in terms of semiconductors the terminology becomes holes or electrons and if we discuss in terms of electrolytes the terminology becomes ions.

### Unit Of Electric Current

The  SI unit of electric current is Ampere(A). So how can I define what is ampere? If One Couloum Charge flows in the medium per second is called one ampere. The Unit of charge is Coloum and the unit of time is second.

### I =Q/t  = Coloum/Sec = 1 Ampere

So how can I measure  The Flow of Electric Current in any circuit?

### How Can I Measure the Electric Current in any Circuit?

so let us take an Ampere meter to measure the charge carriers in the circuit because charge carriers are called electric current.so We need an ampere meter to measure the electric current in the circuit. So Do you know what connection we need to connect the ampere meter in the circuit Series or Parallel?

### How Can I Connect the ampere meter to the circuit?

we connect the ampere meter to the series of wires that current we need to measure

### What types of Ampere meter W.r.t Supply measurement?

There are two types of Ampere meter One is AC current meter and another one is a DC ampere meter.

### Can we measure current without connecting the ampere meter in the circuit?

Yes, it's possible if you have a clamp-on meter you can measure easily because its working principle is electromagnetic induction.

## Types of Electrical current

There are two types of electrical current

• AC Electrical Current
• DC Electrical current

### AC Electrical Current

AC current is called alternating current because its changes at every point. There are many examples of the application of ac in our daily lives. when you on a switch at your home to turn on the light it's alternating current. The alternating frequency is 50hz or 60hz in different countries. when you plot an ac current with an oscilloscope  W.r.t Time. you see it change at every point. if you talk about which current is better ac or DC ? so we need to understand the comparison between ac and dc. we compare both supplies later. if we say how can I generate ac supply so we simply need an alternator that produces ac supply or another option is we use a generator with slip rings that provide you ac supply.

### DC Electrical Current

DC Electrical current defines as a Direct current that does not change its direction W.r.t. Time. If you want to check the dc applications you can check car batteries, home ups batteries, solar batteries, Dc power supplies, engines, lighting and ignition system etc. if you need to measure the dc current we used a dc ampere meter. so how can I generate the dc supply the main source of dc supply is a battery, dc generator etc

## Effect of Electrical Current

Three types of effect occur when the electrical current flow in the circuit that is described below

1. Magnetic Effect
2. Heating Effect
3. Chemical Effect

### Magnetic Effect

when the current flow in the conductor the magnetic field is produced in the current-carrying conductor. The direction of the current is clockwise. Let's suppose a uniform magnetic field is available in the circuit and if we put a current-carrying conductor in the uniform magnetic field both field is effect by each other and a resultant field is produced. this resultant field generates a force that put out the conductor in the field. if we change the conductor in a coil so flux is produced on each coil sum up.

### Heating Effect

When the electrical current flow in the high resistive element the heat is produced in the form of I2R.The temperature depends on the magnitude of the current. the thermocouple changes this temperature into emf. The thermocouple consists of different type of conductors and their linear temperature is also different. when current is flowing in the thermocouple their linear expansion is different so this difference creates an emf .this is called the heating effect.

### Chemical Effect

When current is flowing in the electrolyte a chemical reaction happens that effect is called the chemical effect. The Dc ampere-hour is worked on this principle. when current is flowing in the electrolyte it decomposes into particles .according to the Faraday law the quantity of decomposing metal is a direct relation to current and time.

### Magnetic effects

Ammeters, voltmeters, wattmeters, integrating meters, and most other electrical instruments.

Heating effect

Ammeters and voltmeters

### Chemical effects integrating meters(DC ampere-hour meters)

integrating meters(DC ampere-hour meters)