# Practical Transformer

**Input power ≠ output power**

**Equivalent Resistance**

We know that an ideal transformer is a type of transformer in which the input power is equal to the output power which means no losses occur in the transformer.

Still, the practical transformer is different to an ideal transformer because the input power is not equal to the output power in the practical transformer due to copper losses and iron losses.

primary and secondary windings have some value of resistance that causes the voltage drop in the practical transformer.

Equivalent Circuit of an Electrical Transformer |

The primary winding resistance is R1 and the Secondary winding resistance is R₂. you can easily transfer one resistance to another.

If we need to transfer the secondary winding resistance R₂ toward the primary side simply divide it with K² and it represents R'₂.

equivalent Secondary Resistance = R'₂=R₂/k²

The copper losses of secondary are equal to I²R.

- I1²R'₂ = I₂²R₂
- R'₂= {I2:I1}²R₂

if we Neglect No load current Io

**I₂:I1=1:k****R'₂=R₂/K²**

We transfer Equivalent primary resistance toward the secondary

**R'₁=R****₁****K²: **equivalent primary Resistance

Equivalent Circuit of an Electrical Transformer |

**Equivalent Circuit of an Electrical Transformer**

Let's Suppose The transformer Resistance and Leakage reactance are outside the windings and No load Current Io flows in the pure inductance Xo and Non-Inductive resistance Ro.

Equivalent Circuit of an Electrical Transformer |

**Xo = E1/Io****Ro = E1/Io**

We know that

**E2/E1 = N2/N1 = K**

To make the calculations easy we simply transfer voltage, and current on one side.

**E'₂ = E₂/k=E₁**

The output voltage of the primary equivalent

**V'₂ = V₂/K**

**I'₂=KI₂**

## Conclusion

## Faqs(Frequently Asked Questions)

#### What is an electrical transformer, and how does it work?

An electrical transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. It works on the principle of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.

#### What are the main types of transformers?

The main types of transformers include power transformers, distribution transformers and instrument transformers.f

#### What is the difference between a step-up transformer and a step-down transformer?

#### How do you test the performance of a transformer?

Transformer performance is tested using various methods, including ratio tests, insulation resistance tests, turns ratio tests, short-circuit tests, open-circuit tests, and temperature rise tests.

**Related Posts :**

**How to Reduce The Transformer Losses?**

**Single Phase Transformer Vs Three Phase Transformer**

**EMF Equation Of Electrical Transformer**

**What is a Step-Up Transformer?**

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