Testing Of Electrical power TransformerㅣRoutine Test & Type TestㅣElectronicsinfos

Testing Method Of Electrical Power Transformer

    Testing method of electrical transformer
    An electrical transformer is the most efficient machine, To maintain efficiency we conduct Many types of tests on Electrical power Transformers to check their efficiency and reliability. These tests are categorised into 
    1. Mechanical Test 
    2. Electrical Test
    Both test purpose is the improvement of Electrical and Mechanical Efficiency. This test categorises into 
    1. Routine Test 
    2. Type Test

    Routine Test 

    There are many types of Routine Tests are described below

    1. Ratio And Polarity
    2. Load Loss
    3. Impedance
    4. Insulation Resistance
    5. Resistance of Windings
    6. No-load Loss
    7. No-Load Test
    8. Voltage Test windings
    9. Core insulation Voltage test 

    Type Test

    1. Temperature Rise Test
    2. Impulse Voltage Test 
    3. Noise Level Test
    In this article, we discuss the Following Test
    1. Polarity Test
    2. Open Circuit Test
    3. short circuit test
    4. Ratio Test
    5. Insulation Test
    6. Back-Back test

    Polarity Test

    The Polarity of a transformer is defined as the Direction of Current flowing in each terminal. The representation of Transformer polarity is the same as the battery polarity. Some standards show When you Stay on the high voltage side of the transformer, mark H1 on one side and H2 on another side. There are two types of connection available W.r.t polarity, one is Additive and another is Subtractive. Additive polarity means both voltages are added and subtractive polarity means both voltages subtract each other.

    How to check the polarity of Single phase transformer?

    To check the Accurate polarity of a single-phase transformer we need a Standard Transformer that Polarity is Known and another transformer whose polarity needs to be determined is available for the same ratio and voltage. 


    1. Connect H.T Leads and L.T Leads in parallel to each other.
    2. Connect the Fuse on the Secondary Side of Transformer.
    3. If Both transformers have the same polarity There is no current flowing in L.T Leads.
    4. If Both transformers are in opposite polarity the L.T. windings are Short circuits and the fuse is cut off the Circuit. 

    Note: Fuse Ratings Must Be low Value.

    Additive Polarity

    Additive Polarity of transformer

    Subtractive Polarity

    Subtractive polarity of transformer

    Check the polarity with the help of Voltmeter

    We also check the polarity of the transformer with the help of a Volt meter. For this purpose, we need to connect a voltmeter as the image show for additive and subtractive polarity. If transformer polarity is additive in nature The voltage is Va+Vb and if subtractive in nature the voltage is Va-Vb.

    Additive Polarity

    Transformer Polarity with volt  meter

    Subtractive Polarity

    Subtractive Polarity with voltmeter

    Open Circuit Test

    The Open Circuit Test is Also called the No load test. The purpose of this test is to calculate the no-load loss and no-load current. To perform this test we use one winding of the transformer especially prefer high voltage winding. 


    1.  open high voltage winding of the transformer.
    2.  connect Low voltage winding with normal supply voltage. 
    3. connect the watt meter, ampere meter and volt meter with low voltage winding.
    When we apply normal voltage to the primary winding the normal flux is produced in this winding and iron losses appear across the watt meter. 
    There are no Copper losses that occur because the circuit is open. when we connect the voltmeter in the secondary circuit it shows induced EMF so we can easily find the Transformation Ratio K.if watt meter reading is known so we can easily find the following values


    W = V1IoCosф0
    Cosф0 = W/V1Io
    open circuit test for transformer

    Short circuit Test

    The Short circuit test is also called the Impedance Test. This test is conducted to find the 

    1. Equivalent Impedance (Z01 or Z02)
    2. Leakage Reactance(X01 or X02)
    3. Total Resistance(R01 or R02)
    4. Full load copper loss
    5. Total voltage Drop
    6. To find The regulation of the transformer


    1. Short The low winding with a heavy Conductor to Find the Rated load current.
    2. Connect the primary winding with Normal frequency and Voltage and increase this voltage step by step to flow the full load current in primary and secondary windings.
    3. In this method, The induced Mutual flux is X percentage of the Main Flux.
    4. The Core loss is very low so the Watt meter shows purely full-load copper loss.
    If we required Vsc voltage to operate the Rated load Current. The following formula is used
    • Z01=Vsc/I1
    • W=I2R01
    • X01=√Z01² - R01² 
    short circuit test for transformer
    Ratio Test

    There are two methods to perform the Ratio Test, which test is chosen depending on the availability of Equipment. The Most used Method 1 is described below

    Method 1

    we provide a Specific Voltage to the High voltage winding of the transformer and measure the other winding voltage with the help of a volt meter or Potential Transformer.

    Record the Different Ratios on different turns of windings and compare them.

    Method 2

    1. In This Method, We Compare under test meter with calibrated standard Meter.
    2. Standard Meter divided into small Turns Ratio.
    3. Connect the Standard Transformer and Under test transformer in Parallel.
    4. Energise the high voltage windings of Both transformers.
    5. The low-voltage winding of the transformer is connected to a Sensitive Amp Meter.
    6. Check the under-test transformer ratio w.r.t standard transformer and record their values.

    Ratio Test With The Help of Ratio Meter Transformer

    The ratio meter consists of a small Portable transformer where Primary turns are fixed and secondary turns consist of a high number of turns. The secondary turns are connected with selector switches in which one switch is fine and another is coarse. The image is shown below

    The under-test transformer high voltage winding is connected with a low voltage main supply of 220 or 400 volts.
    Compare the induced voltage on the secondary with the Ratio meter output voltage.  
    Connect the ampere meter on both windings.
    regulate the transformer tapings till the ampere meter show 0 amperes.
    When the ampere meter shows 0 amperes it means both transformer ratio is equal and their voltages are also equal.
    Now you can easily find the values with the help of a standard meter.
    Insulation Test

    if a transformer is working under normal operating conditions and if we applied high voltage for a Specific Time to check its insulation or dielectric strength is called an insulation test.

    To check the insulation of the power transformer we conduct the following high-voltage tests 

    1. Power Frequency Voltage test
    2. Impulse Voltage testing 

    Power Frequency Voltage test

    power frequency voltage test is categorised in type and Routine Test. In this test, we provide a high voltage value for specific times. This high voltage does not break the insulation otherwise this test is considered to fail. The test voltage depends on the type of transformer(Dry or Oil).

    Impulse voltage is categorised in the Type test. we provide a standard impulse wave of 1.2/50us of one winding. The other winding, tank and core are earthed. The purpose of this test is to find the faults due to the Switching, Lightning etc

    Reference value of power frequency voltage test

    Back to Back test

    A back-to-back test is used to find the Temperature developed under load conditions. Back to back test is also called the sumpner Test. The limitation of this test is we need two same transformers.


    In this test, we connect two transformers in parallel and applied normal voltage and frequency. The secondary winding is connected in series and their Phase in opposite directions. We use a voltage regulator on the secondary side and change the voltage gradually To measure the total iron losses and copper losses with the help of watt meters. When Switch s is open watt meter W1 measures core losses. We Connect secondary winding in such a way it has potential in the opposite direction, this is only possible when Vab=Vcd  So watt meter W2 Measure the copper loss.

    Back to back Test for transformer

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