## What is the Efficiency?

Transmission efficiency is the ratio of the output power delivered to the load to the input power supplied by the source.it is expressed as a percentage. It indicates how effectively energy is transmitted from the source to the load. In this Article, we calculate the efficiency of the AC and DC transmission system step by step

## How To Calculate DC Transmission Efficiency With the example

The efficiency of a DC (Direct Current) transmission system can be calculated using the following formula

**Where**

- Output Power is the power delivered at the receiving end of the transmission line (in watts or kilowatts).
- Input Power is the power sent into the transmission line at the sending end (in watts or kilowatts).

#### To calculate the efficiency of a DC transmission system, follow these steps

### Step-1: Determine the Input Power

Calculate the input power by multiplying the voltage (V) at the sending end by the current (I) injected into the transmission line. This is given in watts or kilowatts.

### Step 2: Determine the Output Power

Calculate the output power by multiplying the voltage (V) at the receiving end by the current (I). This is also given in watts or kilowatts.

### Step 3: Calculate Efficiency

Use the formula for efficiency to calculate the percentage of power that is successfully transmitted from the sending end to the receiving end.

### Example: calculation of DC transmission efficiency

For example, let's say you have a DC transmission system with the following parameters:

- Input Voltage (V): 500 kV
- Input Current (I): 1000 A
- Output Voltage (V): 450 kV
- Output Current (I): 900 A

### Step 1: Calculate Input Power

### Step 2: Calculate Output Power

### Step 3: Calculate Efficiency

The efficiency of the DC transmission system in this example is approximately 81%. This means that 81% of the input power is successfully delivered to the receiving end of the transmission line, while the remaining 19% is lost as heat or other losses in the system.

## How To Calculate Ac Transmission Efficiency With example

Let's walk through a step-by-step calculation of AC transmission efficiency with an example. Suppose we have the following parameters for an AC transmission system

- Resistance of the transmission line (R):
**0.5 ohms** - Core loss constant (C):
**0.02** - Resistance of transformer windings (Rw):
**0.1 ohms** - Frequency of the AC system (f):
**60 Hz** - Inductance (L):
**0.1 H** - Capacitance (C):
**10 ÂµF** - Harmonic distortion factor (HDF):
**0.05** - The voltage at the sending end (V):
**230 kV** - Current at sending end (I):
**1000 A** - The voltage at the receiving end (V):
**220 kV** - Current at receiving end (I):
**900 A**

#### Let's calculate each step in the efficiency calculation

### Line Losses (LL)

### Transformer Losses (TTL)

### Reactive Power Losses (RPL)

### Power Factor (PF)

power factor |

### Voltage Regulation (VR)

### Harmonic Distortion Losses (HDL)

### Total Losses (TL)

### Input Power (Pin)

### Output Power (Pout)

### Efficiency Calculation (Î·)

So, the efficiency of the AC transmission system in this example is approximately 14.13%. This means that 14.13% of the input power is successfully delivered to the receiving end.

At the same time, the remaining percentage is lost due to various factors such as line losses, transformer losses, reactive power losses, power factor losses, voltage regulation losses, harmonic distortion losses, etc.

## Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs

#### What is transmission efficiency?

#### What factors affect AC transmission efficiency?

- Line resistance causing power losses (I²R losses)
- Corona losses
- Dielectric losses in the insulation
- Inductive and capacitive reactance causing voltage drops and power losses

#### What factors affect DC transmission efficiency?

- Line resistance causing power losses (I²R losses)
- Converter losses (if AC-DC conversion is involved)
- Insulation losses

#### What are some methods to improve transmission efficiency?

- Using higher transmission voltages to reduce current and thus I²R losses
- Using high-quality, low-resistance conductors
- Employing advanced insulation materials
- Utilizing modern converter technology in DC transmission systems

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